If you’re a dedicated writer, have you ever wondered what happens to your book proposal after it arrives at the publishing house? Sometimes, I’m afraid, the acquisition process appears to be a sort of “black box.” Proposals are positioned into the black box and then disappear-for weeks. At some point they pop out. The majority are sent back to the originator with a rejection letter. A precious few actually become a book.But what happens while the proposal is inside the black box?
In this post I want to describe the internal proposal review process. If you have ever
enquired how in the world publishing houses decide what to publish, this post is for you.
Firstly, you need to get to grips with that the entire proposal review process is designed to do one thing: kill all but the most worthy projects. This may be tough to accept, but you have to comprehend the supply of hopeful authors is infinite even though the supply of publishing resources is finite. Publishers can merely publish a fraction of the proposals they receive.Therefore, every publisher employs a screening
procedure of some sort. You might think of it as a selection of hurdles a proposal must overcome before it crosses the finish line and becomes a book. These hurdles may differ in number from publishing house to publishing house. But in most publishing houses there are actually five.The Acquisitions Editor. Acquisitions editors are the people
within the publishing house specifically charged with finding and developing authors and books that are congruent with the publisher’s mission. Over time, they have developed “noses” for the right projects. They typically see a huge selection of proposals each year. Good editors can review a proposal and decide in sixty seconds or less whether it merits further consideration. If it doesn’t, then it gets tossed into the rejection pile.
Typically, an acquisitions editor has unlimited authority to say “no.” They are able to reject a proposal without approval from anyone. Conversely, they don’t usually have the absolute authority to approve a proposal for publication. The most they can do is shepherd the proposal through the next step in the process.This is why your first objective as an
writer is to sell the acquisitions editor. He’s the “gatekeeper” to the publishing house. If you can’t do that, you’re dead in the water. This is the one place where you have the most control. You must develop a compelling book proposal that gets the acquisitions editor’s attention. You must demonstrate the content is compelling and there is a viable market for it.The Editorial Committee. Once you’ve convinced the acquisitions editor, he or she has to convince an Editorial Committee.
This is often generally the specific imprint’s in-house staff. It may involve the publisher, other acquisitions editors, managing editors, marketing people, etc.
This is a cynical group. They’ve got long memories, especially about projects that didn’t work. They are a little bit like accountants. Show them the donut and the first thing they see is the hole. (I’m speaking as someone that sat on one of these committees for years.)The committee’s meetings are a sort of Darwinian process where only the strongest proposals survive. The participants are not looking for reasons to publish a project as much as they are looking for reasons not to publish a project.
“It’s not very well written.” “The premise isn’t very clear.” “Books about this topic never do well.” “The author doesn’t hold the necessary credentials.” And the list goes on. Believe me, there are hundreds of reasons not to publish a particular proposal.This is why, to the extent you can, you have to make your proposal “bullet-proof.” You must
learn to anticipate the objections and make sure they are addressed in the proposal. The great news is once you have sold this group, you have a team working to clear the remaining hurdles. The goal is to get them on-board.The Publishing Board. This
will likely be a once-a-month meeting between the editorial or publishing leaders and the sales channel leaders. The objective is for acquisitions editors to present their projects to the sales staff, so that they can get an initial reaction. The acquisitions editors are recommending these proposals, so there is an implied endorsement.
The acquisitions editors concentrate on all the explanations why the book should be published. They are selling. And they are selling the most important audience to the success of your book. If the sale professionals are sold, they can sell their customers. If they can’t be sold, the book will not succeed. Period.Like the Editorial Committee, the sales people are also cynical but
generally less so. They’ve seen it all before. The character of publishing is that more projects fail than work, so they have lots of ready examples of why your project will fail too. But they also must have new products to sell, so they are also looking for the next big idea. They want to believe; they just have to be convinced.The acquisitions editor usually gets
five or six minutes to pitch your project to the Publishing Board. He may have contacted you for supporting material to help him do the best job possible. It’s not unusual for the acquisitions editor to play a short video clip, pass out a press kit, or show a Web site on the projector.
No matter, if you get asked for additional material do all in your power to get the editor what he needs. He will be representing you, and he only gets one shot at it. You need to help him cast your proposal in the best possible light.The project will then be discussed for another
couple of minutes. Then each sales channel leader “votes” on the project by writing down how many books he thinks he can “lay down” (the initial shipment) and then sell in the first six months to a year. (It depends on the type of product. Some have shorter expected life cycles than others.) This is important, because the higher the sales forecast, the higher the probability of your book being published.This is not a long process, as you can see.
The entire presentation and discussion rarely takes more than ten minutes. Then the proposal moves to the next hurdle.The Financial Pro Forma. Today, no successful publisher can afford to make a decision to publish a book without considering the
economic impact. The expense is just too significant.
The publisher has to consider how much he will have to offer as a royalty advance, how much he will have to pay the author in royalties, and what he will have to spend on marketing and inventory. In addition, he must look at the sales forecasts by channel, since each channel has it’s own discount structure, return rates, and overhead structure.All of these variables get plugged into a very
advanced financial pro forma. It usually takes a few iterations to get it right, but the publisher will quickly assess the investment required, the break-even point, and the profit he will make, given specific variables. Based on this, the publisher will know whether or not the project is financially (or commercially) viable. Assuming it is, the project still must clear one final hurdle.The Publisher’s Sign-Off. Just because the project has cleared the first four hurdles, does not guarantee the book will be published. The publisher has to make the final call. He considers other, more subjective issues: Do I like this project? Do I like the author? Do I like his or her agent? Am I willing to risk this much capital, given the other things we have already committed to? How will my other authors react to this title? Do I really need this title?
In addition, if the project is big enough, it may require the publisher’s boss to sign-off on the project or perhaps even the CEO. Most publishing houses have various approval levels. If the project exceeds a certain person’s approval level, then it must go up the chain-of-command.
Once the project has been approved by the publisher, the acquisitions editor will then have the authority to make a formal offer to the author or (more likely) the author’s agent.
Once you understand this process, you can see why the decision to approve a project for publication takes four to six weeks. Yes, it can be fast-tracked when necessary. This often happens with bigger projects where several publishing houses are competing for the same project. But, by and large, it works better if it is not compressed. This process-long as it may seem-is necessary to get the internal buy-in necessary for the entire publishing house to get behind the project.
I have not written this post to discourage you from traditional publishing. Instead, I have written it to empower you. Now that you know what goes on inside the black box called publishing, you can take four specific steps to ensure you clear all five hurdles:
Write a killer proposal. This is the foundation of every successful project. You will need this to enlist the support of an agent. Your agent will need it to attract interest from acquisitions editors. It will be used to clear each hurdle in the process.
Listen to your agent. Remember, your agent doesn’t get paid until your project is sold. If he has survived for more than a few years, it is because he knows how to get from point A to point B. Therefore, treat him like a trusted guide.
Cooperate with your editor. Do everything you can to comply with the acquisition editor’s requests. Once he agrees to present the project to the Editorial Committee, he has become your representative inside the publishing house. You have to equip him to succeed.
Be patient. The process takes a while. Hopefully, this post has helped you understand why. There is more happening inside the publishing house than you may have initially thought.
Whatever you do, don’t act entitled. You’re not. No publisher has an obligation to publish your work. In essence, you are the seller; publishers are the buyers. You’re job is to convince them that taking a chance on your book is in their best economic interest.